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Terms and Definitions

Annex B – Terms and Definitions

Civil Works

Following the Report on the Quarterly Survey of Construction Output, civil works refer to construction works performed by main contractors at construction sites by end-use group nature named “Structures and facilities” which include transport, other utilities & plant, environment and sports & recreation.

Following the definition under the Report on the Quarterly Report of Employment and Vacancies at Construction Sites, civil engineering works include railways, roads, highways, bridges, airport, port works, water works, drainage, reclamation, excavation works, site formation, rest gardens, open spaces, sport grounds, other urban services facilities, service stations and plant and other related construction project.

Following the definition under the Key Statistics on Business Performance and Operating Characteristics of the Building, Construction and Real Estate Sectors, civil engineering includes construction of civil engineering projects and miscellaneous civil engineering works.

New Building Works

Following the Report on the Quarterly Survey of Construction Output, new building works refer to the construction works performed by main contractors at construction sites by end-use group nature named “Buildings” which include residential, commercial, industrial & storage and service.

Following the definition under the Report on the Quarterly Report of Employment and Vacancies at Construction Sites, building works include residential buildings, commercial buildings, industrial buildings and general superstructure erection depending on its nature of works or the end-use of the construction project.

Following the definition under the Key Statistics on Business Performance and Operating Characteristics of the Building, Construction and Real Estate Sectors, construction of buildings includes erection of architectural superstructures, structural steel framework erection, other new building construction, structural alteration & addition works, erection of minor architectural superstructures, erection of temporary structures and combined & other miscellaneous new building construction works.

RMAA works

Following the Report on the Quarterly Survey of Construction Output, RMAA works refers to the construction works at locations other than sites, including general trades and special trades.

General trades include decoration, repair and maintenance and construction works at minor work locations such as site investigation, demolition, and structural alternation and addition works.

Special trades include carpentry, electrical equipment, ventilation, gas and water fitting installation and maintenance etc.

Labour Department defines RMAA works as those repair, maintenance, alteration & addition works and also refer to those minor works such as construction projects for village type houses in the N.T., minor alterations, repairs, maintenance and interior decoration of existing buildings.

New Works

Labour Department defines New Works as those construction sites where new development or re-development works are being carried out. This included, without limited to, building, piling, demolition, site formation and civil engineering works.

Construction Site

It refers to a demarcated locality where one or more stages of construction work are being carried on.

Public Sector

Following the Report on the Quarterly Survey of Construction Output, public sector construction works includes project commissioned by the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, MTR Corporation Limited and Airport Authority.  Projects under the Home Ownership Scheme, which are commissioned by Housing Authority, are also included.

Following the Report on the Quarterly Report of Employment and Vacancies at Construction Sites, public sector sites refer to those under the control of Government departments, the Airport Authority and the MTR.

Private Sector

Following the Report on the Quarterly Survey of Construction Output, private sector construction works includes projects commissioned by private developers.  Project under the Private Sector Participation Scheme are also included.

The private sector data in Table 3 includes those construction works carried out at locations other than sites, i.e. decoration, repair and maintenance, works at minor works location, etc.

Following the Report on the Quarterly Report of Employment and Vacancies at Construction Sites, private sector sites refer to those registered with the Buildings Department, including superstructure on sites above the MTR Stations.

Intermediate consumption

The intermediate consumption of the construction industry comprise the expenses on consumption of building materials and supplies on sites and sundry supplies in business operation, rentals, expenses on repair and maintenance and other services such as transportation, technical consultancy, insurance, etc. Consumption of materials and supplies is obtained by adjusting the value of purchases by changes in inventories net of price appreciation. Payments to labour-only sub-contractors are included in compensation of employees.

Public Sector Site (H&S indicators)

Public sector sites include sites under the Development Bureau, Housing Authority, other government departments, MTR Corporation Limited and Airport Authority.

Private Sector Site (H&S indicators)

Private sector sites refer to sites other than public sector sites (Development Bureau, Housing Authority, other government departments, MTR Corporation Limited and Airport Authority).

Manual Workers

Following the Report on the Quarterly Report of Employment and Vacancies at Construction Sites, manual workers at construction site are people either directly employed by the main contractor, or being called upon by sub-contractors or gangers to work in the construction site on the survey reference date. They include skilled, semi-skilled and general workers.
Professional and administrative personnel such as architects, engineers, surveyors, contract managers, site agents, clerks of works, technicians, site foremen and general clerical staff are EXCLUDED.  Number of manual workers also excludes the workers work for RMAA works.  For sites under the charge of Government departments, manual workers in some 40 selected major occupations at the skilled and semi-skilled levels are covered in the administrative returns furnished by the respective Government departments.

Construction and Arbitration Proceedings / List

Following the Practice Direction – 6.1 “Construction and Arbitration List (“the List”), the List was established to facilitate the disposal of specialized classes of civil action.  The classes of action within the List include (but are not limited to) cases concerning the following:

(1)  civil or mechanical engineering;
(2)  building or other construction work;
(3)  claims by or against engineers, architects, surveyors and other professional persons or bodies engaged in matters relating to the construction industry; and
(4)  applications relating to arbitration whether arising under the Arbitration Ordinance (Cap. 341), Rules of High Court ("RHC"), Order 73 or otherwise.

There shall be a Judge in charge of the List.  Other Judges ("designated Judges") may also be designated to hear proceedings within the List from time to time.

Consumption of Resources and Energy Following the definition under the Key Statistics on Business Performance and Operating Characteristics of the Building, Construction and Real Estate Sectors, consumption of resources and energy refers to the consumption of materials and supplies, fuels, electricity and water and maintenance services.
Building Energy Use

Following the Report on Hong Kong Energy End-use Data, the building energy use refers to the energy end-use data, including Electricity, Town Gas & Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Oil & Coal Products.

Electricity includes the electricity generated from coal-fired, and natural gas units. Since 2010, it includes also the electricity generated from wind and solar power. Town Gas & Liquefied Petroleum Gas include town gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and bio-gas. Oil & Coal Products include gasoline, diesel, kerosene, aviation fuel, charcoal, anthracite, coking coal, semi-coking coal and bio-diesel.

Overall Construction Waste Following the Report on Monitoring of Solid Waste in Hong Kong, overall construction waste refers to a mixture of waste or surplus materials arising from construction activities such as site clearance, excavation, refurbishment, renovation, demolition and road works. It also includes waste concrete that is generated from concrete batching plants and cement plaster/ mortar manufacturing plants not set up inside construction sites. Overall construction waste may comprise a fraction of inert materials such as debris, rubble, earth and concrete, which, after proper sorting, can be recycled for use in site formation, land reclamation and construction.


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